Photo shows Cebu Archbishop Jose Palma performing the rite of consecration on the country’s first consecrated virgin Ursulina Presbitero on Valentine’s Day, February 14, the current year.
By Tracy Cabrera MANILA — There are only a few men and women who wish to dedicate their life in serving the Church today.
Such is the case of one outstanding Filipina who took a vow of spending her entire life as a consecrated virgin and serve Christ and the Church with extreme dedication and solitude.
Ursulina Presbitero decided to give her vows of spending her life in service to the Catholic Church in an ‘investiture’ recognized as the oldest recognized form of consecrated life in the history of Christianity.
Presbitero, who hails from the central province of Cebu, promised to serve and dedicate herself to helping the Catholic Church’s mission in the presence of Cebu Archbishop Jose Palma.
“Father, receive my resolution to follow Christ in a life of perfect chastity which, with God’s help, I hereby profess before you and God’s Holy People,” Presbitero said in a solemn rite of consecration at the Archbishop’s Palace in Cebu City last February 14 the current year.
Palma explained that “a consecrated virgin is a never-married woman who dedicates her perpetual virginity to God and is set as a sacred a person who belongs to Christ in the Catholic Church.”
The prelate added that a woman consecrated as a virgin can either live as a nun or as “out in the world,” as Presbitero chose to do.
Based on diocesan records, it is estimated there are about 5,000 such women around the world.
Archbishop Palma clarified that women seeking the vocation must consecrate themselves to God through their diocesan bishop.
“Virgin women, upon consecration, are married mystically to Christ and they dedicate their lives to the service of the Catholic Church. Their consecration is not temporary but permanent. Thus, they are to serve Christ and the Church all their life,” the Cebu archbishop said in his homily during the celebrated mass and consecration ceremony.
Based on Christian tradition, chastity (which may be considered the source where virginity stands on) is described as one of the seven virtues practiced by Christians. Listed by Pope Gregory the Great at the end of the 6th century, the praise of chastity or celibacy as a religious virtue is already present in the New Testament, especially in 1 Corinthians, where Paul the Apostle suggests a special role for virgins or unmarried women as more suitable for “the things of the Lord.” Also in 2 Corinthians 11:2, Paul alludes to the metaphor of the Church as Bride of Christ by addressing the congregation “I have espoused you to one husband that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ.”
In the theology of the Church Fathers, the prototype of the sacred virgin is Mary, the mother of Jesus, consecrated by the Holy Spirit at Annunciation. Although not stated in the gospels, the perpetual virginity of Mary was widely upheld as a dogma by the Church Fathers from the 4th century. The tradition of a ritual form of the consecration also dates to the 4th century, but it is widely held that a more informal consecration was imparted to virgin women by their bishops dating from the time of the Apostles. The first known formal rite of consecration is that of Saint Marcellina, dated AD 353, mentioned in De Virginibus by her brother, Saint Ambrose. Another early consecrated virgin is Saint Genevieve.
During the medieval period, the rite of consecration was maintained by nuns in monastic orders, such as the Benedictines and Carthusians. This consecration could be done either concurrently with or some time after the profession of solemn vows. Among Carthusian nuns, there is the unique practice of these virgins being entitled to wear a stole, maniple and vestments otherwise reserved to clergy.
Typically, mendicant nuns did not have the tradition of receiving the consecration of virgins but were content to have perpetual vows. Saint Margaret of Hungary (1242–1270), a Dominican nun, is a special case insofar as she received the consecration of virgins despite the Dominican tradition of not receiving it; this was done because her father, king Béla IV of Hungary, had her solemn vows dispensed by the pope for the purposes of a political marriage. The consecration of virgins put a stop to this as it could not be dispensed.
In modern times, the revival of the rite of the consecration of virgins in the Catholic Church for women living outside of religious communities is associated with Anne Leflaive (1899–1987). The consecration of virgins after the fashion of the ancient Church was supported by certain French bishops in the early 20th century. Leflaive was directed towards this vocation by François de Rovérié de Cabrières, the bishop of Montpellier. She received the consecration in the chapel of Carmel at Paray-le-Monial on her 25th birthday on January 6, 1924 by the bishop of Autun, Hyacinthe-Jean Chassagnon.
There was an increasing demand for such consecrations in the 1920s, and bishops requested clarification from the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life. The reply given on March 25, 1927 was in the negative which forbade the revival of this type of consecration.
The 1927 decree argued that the consecration of virgins living in the world (in saeculo viventes) had long fallen out of use, and was in contradiction to the then current Canon Law of 1917. It was also argued that the official sanction of a vow of virginity in a “very imposing ceremony” might risk to lead the women so consecrated to judge their status as superior to those of nuns, whose solemn vows are not accompanied by similar ceremonies, and even to divert some women who would otherwise have chosen a monastic vocation.
However, it was significantly due to Leflaive’s efforts over the following decades that this ban was eventually rescinded in 1970 and in 1939; Leflaive founded the secular Missionaries of Catholic Action, an institute of celibate women or widows living in the world, which was, however, suppressed in 1946.
Beginning in the 1940s, Leflaive was in contact with Angelo Roncalli, the future Pope John XXIII and with Giovanni Montini, the future Pope Paul VI, who were receptive to her ideas. During the 1950s, she visited Rome once a year in order to lobby at the Vatican for the re-instatement of the rite of consecration of virgins.
At a time where the Reformed confessions began to introduce the ordination of women, Leflaive strictly rejected such a possibility, arguing that “Christ and His Church offer to the woman a gift of great plentitude” in the form of the Consecration of Virgins, already inscribed in the Roman Pontifical.
“Because of their consecration by the diocesan Bishop, they acquire a special bond with the Church, to which they devote their service, even if they remain in the world. Alone or in community they represent a special eschatological image of the heavenly bride and the future life, when the church will finally live the love of her bridegroom Christ in abundance,” he explained.
Pius XII in 1950 decreed that only nuns living in reclusion were permitted to receive the formal consecration of virgins. In 1954, Pius cited Sponsa Christi and his encyclical Sacra Virginitas as showing the importance of the office consecrated men and women fulfill in the Church.
“This then is the primary purpose, this the central idea of Christian virginity: to aim only at the divine, to turn thereto the whole mind and soul; to want to please God in everything, to think of Him continually, to consecrate body and soul completely to Him,” he said.
In 1963, the Second Vatican Council requested a revision of the rite of the consecration of virgins that was found in the Roman Pontifical. The revised Rite was approved by Pope Paul VI and published in 1970. This consecration could be bestowed either on women in monastic orders or on women living in the world, which revived the form of life that had been found in the early Church.
The 1970 rite of Ordo Consecrationis Virginum states the following requirements for women living in the world to receive the consecration: “That they have never married or lived in open violation of chastity; that, by their prudence and universally approved character, they give assurance of perseverance in a life of chastity dedicated to the service of the church and of their neighbor; that they be admitted to this Consecration by the Bishop who is the local Ordinary,”
Consecrated virgins living in the world belong to the consecrated life. They are not supported financially by their bishop, but must provide for their own upkeep. These women work in professions ranging from teachers and attorneys to that of firefighter.
In 1972, Elizabeth Bailey became the first virgin to be consecrated under the new rite in England, and the first known consecrated virgin in Britain since the 3rd century.
The number of consecrated virgins under the 1970 rite of consecration has grown into the thousands over the course of four decades. As of 2008, the United States Association of Consecrated Virgins (USACV) gave an ‘educated guess’ of a total number of 3,000 consecrated virgins in 42 countries. In a 2015 survey, the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life (CICLSAL) established an estimated number of 4,000 consecrated virgins in 78 countries, with a growing tendency, with a projected increase to about 5,000 by 2018.
The 1970 decree states as a requirement that candidates “have never married or lived in open violation of chastity.” While the lack of a strict requirement of virginity was only implied by omission in the 1970 document, the Vatican on 4 July 2018 released a clarifying statement, explicitly conceding that: “To have kept her body in perfect continence or to have practiced the virtue of chastity in an exemplary way, while of great importance with regard to the discernment, are not essential prerequisites in the absence of which admittance to consecration is not possible.”
”The entire tradition of the Church has firmly upheld that a woman must have received the gift of virginity—that is, both material and formal (physical and spiritual)—in order to receive the consecration of virgins.”
Going back to Presbitero, the country’s first consecrated virgin said she would live her life according to the direction of Archbishop Palma.
Palma said it was his first time consecrating a woman for a perpetual life of prayer and virginity.
“I have officiated over 200 ordinations, but this is the first consecration to the virgin life. And I am happy about it,” he enthused.
The archbishop also said that as mystical “brides of Christ,” such women formed a consecrated bond that would last for eternity.
“He (God the Father) gives you the dignity of being a bride of Christ and binds you to the Son of God in a covenant to last forever,” Archbishop Palma told Presbitero during the rite.
Churchgoers seemed surprised at Presbitero’s life choice, saying it was becoming more unusual in modern times.
“It is unusual . . . The world has taught us to work towards material pursuits . . . this is the norm,” Cebu churchgoer Roel Bardino noted.
Bardino said vocations have decreased generally because of materialistic and worldly concerns.“There are very few men and women entering religious life today. Many congregations have growing concerns in terms of recruitment. Many religious congregations are also dying,” he concluded. (AI/MTVN)